Posted on

Services for Covid-19 Research

About COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global health. The outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020. Up to now, COVID-19 has been recognized in the world, with millions of  laboratory-confirmed cases and more than several 100 thousand deaths. This novel virus spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. As disease progressed, a series of complications tend to develop, especially in critically ill patients. Pathological findings showed representative features of acute respiratory distress syndrome and involvement of multiple organs. Apart from supportive care, no specific treatment has been established for COVID-19. As a novel disease, many mysteries of COVID-19 are still uncovered. VitroVivo will contribute our expertise in molecular pathology and offers SARS-CoV-2 ISH and related gene IHC services to accelerate COVID-19 investigation.

Histopathology and Molecular Pathology Services for COVID-19 Research 

1. In Situ Detection of Viral RNA Markers

Services Provided by VitroVivo Application
 SARS-CoV-2 In Situ Hybridization (ISH)Detect specific RNA for SARS-CoV-2, S gene encoding the spike protein in situ.
 nCoV-2019-S Sense In Situ hybridization (ISH)Detect specific RNA for SARS-CoV-2, the “sense” probe targets the antisense strand of the S gen in situ.

2.  In Situ Detection of SARS-CoV-2 receptor: ACE2

Services Provided by VitroVivo  Application
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) IHC or ISHDetect localization and expression level of SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in tissue in situ.

Reference: Shang, J. . et al. Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. Nature (2020).

3. In Situ Detection of Cytokine Storm Markers

Services Provided by VitroVivo Application
ISH or IHC for IL-1B, IL-6, IL2,IL10, TNFα,IFNγ, IL8,IL-12, IL-4Detect the expression of cytokine storm markers in situ.

4. In Situ Detection of Lung Tissue/ARDS Markers

Services Provided by VitroVivo Application
IHC or ISH for AQP5, SFTPB, RAGE (AGER), SP-D (SFTPD), KL-6 (MUC1), CC16 (SCGB1A1)Detect the expression of cytokine storm markers in situ.

5. Immunohistochemical Identification of Immune and Inflammatory cells

Services Provided by VitroVivo Application (human)
CD3 IHCT Cell marker
CD4 IHCHelper T Cell (Th) marker
CD8 IHCCytotoxic T Cell marker
FOXP3 IHCRegulatory T cell (Treg) marker
CD68 IHCMacrophage marker
CD80, CD86, or iNOS IHCpro-inflammatory (M1-like) Macrophage marker
CD163 or CD206 IHCanti-inflammatory (M2-like) Macrophage marker
CD56/ CD3 IHC (IF)NKT Cell (CD56+/ CD3+) and NK Cell  (CD56+and CD3-) marker
CD19 IHCB Cell marker
CD138 IHCPlasma Cell marker
CD11b IHCMyeloid Cell marker
CD45 IHCLeukocyte marker


Fig.   Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19

From: X. Li et al., Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis,